Rapid Participatory Assessment (RPA) is a quick method to conduct mapping on the condition of community-based sanitation where all the community participates in the process. Some of the reasons in using this method are:
This approach positions the community as the actor;
The approach also gives bigger “space” to the community coming from different social status to deliver their aspirations and wishes, despite of different articulation capabilities;
That’s why, this approach also acts as a media for community empowerment at the grassroots level.
The objective of RPA is to identify the problems in sanitation and the people’s desire to solve them, based on self-capacity, systematically and in short time. The specific objectives are:
Well-identified community experience in the project of sanitation improvement, both self-sustained/independent and aided with external grant
Well-identified community experiences in carrying out mutual work for infrastructure construction
Well-identified problems and needs or community’s plan to solve sanitation problem.
RPA in Bali for the year of 2010 done by Balifokus, as partner from Ministry of Work, in Banjar Dinas Kamasan, Dajan Peken, Tabanan dan Banjar Dinas Tegal Baleran, Dauh Peken, Tabanan. RPA was done in 29 April 2010 where participants consist of all components of the society exist the villages, both women and men, rich and poor, informal and formal leaders. The principle held is that the more varied community component involved in the RPA, the better it is. Before RPA started, the components that need to be involved in RPA have to be clearly discussed with local RT/RW leader.
Variables and indicators within RPA are:
Experience in Constructing Mutual Assistance Facility
Eagerness from the community to contribute
Technical feasibility for sanitation infrastructure
Readiness from the local institutions
Priority list for Sanitation Improvement in the Community Analysis and Planning
In the RPA, each indicator is scored. The score is quantification result from every qualitative statement. It is important to evaluate on community’s conditon, as well as for the purpose of Self-selection Stakeholder Meeting, where decision on which village is selected is based on the total score obtained by each villages. Scoring of each indicator is based on logic: the poorer a village and the greater independency level of a community, will result in higher score, and the other way around.
FIgure 1 & 2: RPA held in Banjar Dinas Tegal Baleran, Dauh Peken, Tabanan
Figure 3 & 4: RPA held in Banjar Dinas Kamasan, Dajan Peken, Tabanan.
Eagerness from the community to contribute is an absolute condition for the program since it is the main indicator on their need on sanitation. On the other hand, land and water availability is also necessary since the sanitation system will be constructed with an orientation on water reliance system. It is also reflected in ICC which is, in this project, provided to the community for then to be selected by themselves.
Issues which needs to be considered in carrying out the scoring process are below:
Options and scores are to provide choices indicating the community’s situation which is most appropriate
Participants are expected to verify the score as optimum as possible
If participant considers their situation is between two given choices, then they have to select the closest option. In this case, note down the reason why such score is given.
Information analysis is done based on the indicators which are previously mentioned: eagerness from the community to contribute and water and land availability should not be 0. It means that the community has to be eager in contributing and there are land and water available. Every indicator must be having different scores, depending on the real situation within the community, and the community’s selection. After that, the village with the highest score is the one which is selected for or valued as the most feasible for SANIMAS program. Even so, when score obtained is equal among the villages, consensus should be carried out to determine which village is ready for the program.